Jordan's flora is rich and highly diverse. Around 2,500 species of vascular plants have been recorded, belonging to 152 families, representing about 1% of the total flora of the world. One hundred species are endemic, forming about 2.5% of the total flora of Jordan, which is considered high in world standards. Many species are considered rare or threatened, but the status of many plants remains unknown, especially concerning the globally threatened ones. 349 plant species recorded in Jordan are considered to be rare, 76 threatened species, in addition to 18 species listed on the IUCN lists.
According to a study done by Al Eisawi, Jordan is divided into 13 vegetation types:
This vegetation type is characterized by the dominance of Aleppo Pine trees in the form of forests. It appears in high altitudes, beginning with 700 m a.s.l. Ex. Jerash, Dibbin, Ajloun, and Zai.
This vegetation type is characterized by saline- tolerant plant species; this vegetation type is dominant in the Saharo - Arabian zone around Azraq oasis, in Ghor area and the Dead Sea shore.
This vegetation type is characterized by the dominance of Evergreen oak trees growing in altitudes more than 700 m a.s.l. this vegetation type represents most of Jordan’s forests. This vegetation type is represented in Wadi Sir, Irbid, Tafila, Hasa, and the area between Shawbak and Petra.
This vegetation type resembles the Sudanian vegetation, it is dominant near the Dead Sea, most of the areas representing this vegetation has been turned into farms except in Ghor Fifa
This vegetation type is characterized by the deciduous oak trees; it grows in altitudes lower than the rest of Jordan’s forests. Most of the forests are not conserved; it ranges from Um Qais in the north, Yarmouk River, Ajloun and near King Talal Dam
This type is well represented in Wadi Araba and Wadi Rum , this vegetation type is characterized by shrubs that are able to fix sand dunes that might reach to 3 m high.
This type of vegetation is only represented in the southern heights and on altitudes exceeding 1000 m a.s.l, in areas that witness’s snowfall on yearly basis like Rashadiyya, Dana in Tafila, Shawbak and Wadi Musa. This type is characterized by Juniper trees that can grow along with Cypress and Pistachio.
Spreading in mountainous and rocky areas in Wadi Araba, Aqaba, Wadi Yutum and Wadi Rum , the Acacia trees grows and becomes more dense towards the bases of mountains.
This vegetation type lacks trees; it is composed of shrubs, following degradation of a forest.
This vegetation is found around springs and water courses and in wadis. Examples: Yarmouk River, Zarqa River, Wadi Shu’aib, Wadi Mujib and Wadi Al Hasa.
This type is restricted to the Irano-turanian zone with few penetrations in the Saharo-arabian and Mediterranean zones. This type is characterized by bushes and shrubs, Mujib is a good example.
This type is best represented in the Saharo-arabian zone, especially where water is found along with mud and granite soils. When the water driesthe soils become very hard, making it very difficult for plants to grow. Azraq Qa and Al Jafer are the best examples on this type.
This vegetation type forms most of the Saharo-arabian zone; it is characterized by vegetation that can tolerate the salinity and hot weather. The Eastern Desert is the best example.